Bone Marrow Transplantation
Bone marrow is a tissue that has a spongy tissue inside the bones and contains blood-forming stem cells. These stem cells in the bone marrow multiply and change when needed and form blood cells. Bone marrow transplant is also known as stem cell transplant and is performed as the procedure of transplanting the tissue taken from the patient himself or from someone else. In this sense, there are two types of bone marrow transplant. If the person’s own stem cells cannot be transplanted from him, it can also be done from an identical twin, or from a fully matched mother, father and sibling. Since the transfer is a very difficult process, it is essential that it is performed by an experienced and expert team. This stem cell transplant, which is seen as a definitive treatment method for many diseases that are very difficult to heal with medical treatments, can only be performed in special units.
Bone Marrow Transplant For Children
Stem cells play a major role in the development and regeneration of all tissues and organs in the body throughout life. Stem cells have many fucntions. They can multiply, divide, differentiate. The most important feature that distinguishes stem cells from other cells is that they can divide unlimitedly. Every system in the body has a unique stem cell, and when irreversible damage is taken, new cells can be produced with the help of these stem cells and can be used to heal damaged tissues. The period called childhood is the period that includes 18 years after birth. In this period, unlike adulthood, genetic diseases can be seen significantly. The incidence of these diseases is higher in countries where consanguineous marriages are common. In the treatment of these diseases, stem cells taken in childhood are used for bone marrow transplantation.
How Bone Marrow Transplant is Performed?
Bone marrow transplant is the process of implanting healthy blood-forming stem cells into the body in order to replace the damaged marrow. In cases where the bone marrow is damaged or does not produce enough blood cells, a marrow transplant is required. These transplants are of two types, autologous and allogeneic. Cells taken from one’s own body are called autologous, while cells taken from someone else are called allogenic. During the transplant procedure, the patient is not drugged to sleep and it is a painless procedure.
What Are Heart Surgeries According to How They Are Performed? It is undoubtedly known by everyone that if the heart diseases are not taken into account, it can result in death. Heart surgery is a surgical method applied to the detection of heart conditions. Let’s briefly explain what are the heart surgeries according to the way they are performed. Heart surgeries are divided into different surgical interventions, including open heart surgery and closed heart surgery. Classical heart surgery is the surgery in which the place called the breastbone is cut. Another method is one of the operations performed by making small incisions under the armpit for robotic surgery methods, which are applied with the developing technology. This surgery is frequently performed by entering under the armpit.
How Is Heart Surgery Performed?
As it is known, heart surgery is performed under general anesthesia as it will be performed in the most vital organs. Prior to this process, the pre-cardiac surgery preparation process is applied to the patient, minimizing all risks to be encountered in the surgery. Under general anesthesia, the patient’s heart is stopped by providing lung machine support, or surgical operation is performed by intervening to the beating heart. Two different methods are used in heart surgeries. One method is the process of making an open surgical application by cutting the faith board on the chest, which is gradually being used. It is very detailed and the healing process is also very long. The most commonly used surgical operation method today is closed heart surgery. In this surgery, a small incision is made from the armpit in order for the robotic devices to reach the heart and a surgical operation that will heal faster with robotic intervention is performed.
How does the Heart Surgeries Associated with The Disease?
There are various risks in all surgical operations. One of the leading factors determining the risks of heart diseases may be the health problems that the person has. The age of the person, the damage in the heart and vessels, the damage in the kidneys, liver and similar organs, and the health problems he or she has already experienced are important factors that shape the question of how the heart surgery are associated with the disease. Heart diseases and diseases that require cardiac surgeries can be diabetes, high blood pressure, congenital heart diseases, heart attack, heart failure, cracking or rupture of aortic vessels, and very rare heart cancer. The decision of surgery is evaluated according to the course of these diseases and the occurrence of heart surgery conditions. As a result of the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment methods are determined and put into practice.
How Bariatric Surgery Is Performed? ; Obese people are undoubtedly the people with the most health problems. The question of how Bariatric surgery is performed is one of the questions frequently asked by obese people. Bariatric surgery is known as obesity surgery. In this surgical operation, an application is made to help people lose weight. It can be applied to obese people, as well as to anyone who wants to lose weight. Surgical operations performed to lose weight are called bariatric surgery method. Sleeve gastrectomy that will enable people who cannot lose weight with diet programs and cannot apply different methods to eat less is one of the bariatric surgery methods. There are also some changes in eating habits and the way the body functions. Bypassing a part of the intestine can be given as an example of this surgical operation.
What Are Bariatric Surgical Methods?
What are the commonly used bariatric surgery methods and when they are used are among the frequently asked topics. 4 methods are widely used today. The methods to be applied are decided, taking into account the health status of the person requesting surgery. These methods are;
· Adjustable Gastric Banding: It is among the most widely used obesity surgical methods. With a special surgical band, the stomach is tied in two sections in the middle, allowing the stomach to shrink. Due to the shrinkage of the stomach, the person is in a position to eat less and stops eating because of the feeling of satiety. The healing time is shorter because the operation is applied enclosed.
· Gastric Bypass Surgery: In this surgery, which is known as stomach reduction surgery among the people, the stomach is divided into two parts and a part of the intestine connects to the stomach. This process provides faster weight loss because of a smaller stomach and less food intake.
· Sleeve Gastrectomy: Part of the stomach is cut and removed. With this method, your stomach is reduced and provides less food intake.
· Duodenal Switch Surgery: In this surgery, starting in the form of gastric bypass, the upper part of the small intestine is cut and connected to the lower part of the small intestine to ensure that your digestive system does not digest some nutrients and causes to gain less weight.
Nutrition After Bariatric Surgery
People who have undergone bariatric surgery should be more careful after this procedure. Nutrition after bariatric surgery is even more critical than the pre-operative nutrition program. After the surgery, the person should consume liquid formula for a specified period of time. This process is generally recommended by physicians as 2 days. After 2 days, it is a process that should be followed successively according to the health status of the person as the consumption period of granular liquid, solid consumption period, soft solid and then solid consumption. After bariatric surgery, individuals should pay attention to their nutritional intake and the variety. In this process, around 2 liters of water should be consumed by avoiding acidic, excessively fatty, sugary carbohydrate foods. Small amounts of food in small portions should be eaten and at long intervals.
Disadvantages of Knee Replacement Surgery
Knee replacement surgery has been one of the most popular treatment methods in the world and in our country for over 30 years. There is no serious risk or harm in general. However, as with any surgery and surgery, there are some risks involved in knee replacement surgery. In order to avoid a possible risk after surgery, it is necessary to carry out the necessary examinations and research prior to surgery and to take care of the choice of the doctor and the institution to perform the surgery.
Possible Risks In Knee Replacement Surgery
- Implant fracture: Of course, the reasons for this condition include the material used and the person performing the surgery. But the biggest cause of this condition is excessive weight, movements and activities that force the knee region.
- Bone Abrasion: After knee replacement surgery, abrasions may occur in the bones around the prosthesis. This can lead to a re-function-loss of the knee and pain.
- Infection: As with any surgery, a non-sterile sloppy environment, or for a variety of reasons, the surgical region may become infected.
- Blood Coagulation: Knee replacement surgery directly affects the veins of the legs. This may occur if the circulation of blood in the veins in the legs is disrupted after surgery. For this reason, the leg should be moved and blood circulation should be accelerated by doing exercises with certain tempos after surgery.
- Allergic Reactions: In rare cases, the body of some patients may have an allergic reaction to the implant metal applied to the knee area. The easiest way to prevent this is to determine whether a patient has this type of allergy prior to a knee replacement surgery.
In Which Circumstances Should Knee Replacement Surgery Not Be Performed?
- As with any surgery, there are situations where knee replacement surgery is inconvenient and risky, and these situations can be listed as follows:
- If the bones of the patient are weak or the patient has osteoporosis that can not carry the prosthesis.
- If there is an active infection in the knee area that has not yet been healed, or if there has been a serious infection before.
- If the veins in the knees have been damaged by various causes.
- If the muscles in the region have lost function or are damaged.
If the patient has insufficient bone development, etc.
What Is a Knee Replacement? After the cartilage joint bones in the knees are deformed and unable to function due to various reasons, the cartilage joint bones in the knees are removed and replaced with knee prosthetics. The purpose of this surgery is to eliminate movement restriction and pain of the individual by simulating the current functioning with the implanted prosthetics.
In Which Cases Is Knee Replacement Surgery Considered Necessary?
Knee replacement surgery is performed for individuals who have arthritis in the knee joints for a variety of reasons and experience pain and movement restrictions as a result. There are major reasons for deformation and calcification of the knee joints;
- Various inflammatory diseases
- Excess weight
- Fractures and cracks in joints
- Advanced rheumatism disorders
- Lesion formations
- Meniscus ruptures and injuries, etc.
The reasons mentioned above cause damage to the knee joints and the knee joints are largely unable to perform their functions. The pain that occurs as a result of these deformities can cause people to experience extreme pain even when they are stable at advanced levels of the disease. In cases of infection, if there is still infection in the region, a knee replacement surgery can not be performed unless the infection is completely healed.
Process After Knee Replacement Surgery
- The hospitalization process for patients after surgery is an average of one week.
- The patient may perform movements related to basic individual needs, such as walking, sitting and going to the toilet no later than 2 days after surgery.
- The exercises recommended by the doctor should be continued on a regular basis after the stitches have been removed at the end of the 15th day and after surgery.
- Depending on the operation, the formation of turgescency in the knee region continues for up to 5 months. However, normal mobility can generally be achieved at the end of 1-1, 5 months.
The life span of the prosthesis used in knee replacement surgery has increased to 20 years in parallel with today’s technologies. On the other hand, there are many different factors and reasons that affect the life span of knee prostheses;
- First of all, the institution where the surgery is performed, the environment and the doctor who performs the surgery have a very large share of the life-span of the prosthesis.
- In addition to these, the patient has the largest share to determine the life-span of the prosthesis. The age , sex, weight and lifestyle of the patient are determining factors in this regard. After surgery , the patient should pay close attention to weight and exercise and avoid challenging movements that may lead to re-deformation of the knees.